Saturday, December 24, 2011
It is a criminal activity that is purposely undertaken for the purpose of acquiring profit, power and influence. It involves a couple of people who organize themselves on various hierarchical basis and they engage in both illegal and legal activities. The various positions may be assigned according to kinship or friendship especially hierarchical or skill. There is extreme willingness to use bribery or violence to achieve intended goals and also to maintain discipline (Woodiwiss, 2001).
Membership is restricted though on a contingency basis some members may be allowed. It involves: Punishable offences by a an imprisonment term that bears a minimum of seven years, the act or process must involve either two or more persons, substantial and reliable planning, overall organization and continuing activity. It bears no political goals, limited membership, it’s perpetual in nature, governed by a series of rules and regulation and it is very monopolistic in nature.
Relationships and problems established by organized crime
Corruption and organized crime are different but they supplement one another in a symbiotic relationship. For instance South Africa is suffering this problem due to the many years of political and economic isolation during the years of apartheid rule. During this period various corrupt officials used their means to acquire resources of the country inappropriately hence deteriorating the country’s economic growth. Corruption is a major area that affects most of the third world countries and appropriate measures should be formulated to ensure that it is addressed (Woodiwiss, 2001). These countries later waste a lot of time and resources trying to recover the lost funds through corruption.
Criminal alliances also are formed by a certain group of people who share a common purpose plan of an involvement in illegal activity. This is mostly experienced where there exists two or more groups who share a certain resource disagree on a certain issue hence forming the alliance.
Market that is criminogenic in structure is also another relationship that is established by organized crime since goods that are acquired through it leads to unsaturated demand. These goods offered in the market are illegal and may include drugs, vehicles, arms and products from various endangered species (Woodiwiss, 2001). Presence of aliens or undocumented migrants in various countries may not only lead to competition for the available scarce resources but also their major role in criminal activities.
These are some of the effects of organized crime.
False documentation and bribery has emerged as a way out for organized crime. This is a way of acquiring false resident permanent and temporary certificates that has been adopted by aliens. The greatest challenge is that some of these powerful people who are given the responsibility of tracking down illegal in a country are also illegal. In such a case it will be very difficult to cope with the challenge since the official will not support the movement as intended.
Organized crime in general has brought many problems in many countries. Growth of our countries have deteriorated since corruption has taken the better part running the country and this has resulted to the economy wealth being held by a few people as opposed to being distributed to the people (Woodiwiss, 2001). Presence of illegal goods has led to deteriorated business performance since the goods are offered at a throw away price making the genuine goods go without market. This has contributed to lack of employment as many energetic people cannot find an opportunity to utilize their energy and earn their daily needs. This has effectively contributed to rapid growth of crime in our countries since most of the energetic people cannot afford the basic needs.
Limitations associated with combating organized crime and federal laws that guide in combating organized crime
The law was a proposal by Senator John McCleallan during the 89th and 90th Senate Bill Congress. The section 2 (a) of the law states that whoever remains or becomes a member after enactment of this law or any of the various organizations having one of its role will have violated the United States criminal laws with knowledge of the obligation of the organization will be guilty and imprisoned for not less than five years but not more than twenty years or equally fined less than twenty thousand US dollars.
Illegal gambling businesses
This is a law that was enacted in United States under title 18 and has played a great role. A racketeering activity is used to mean any threat or actual act involving murder, gambling, kidnapping, narcotic, robbery or other dangerous drugs that is punishable by an imprisonment of not less than one year (Woodiwiss, 2001). This is also another federal law that aims at combating organized crime in the society and is a reliable that is worth adopting.
Federal Bureau of Investigation laws
These include the laws that have been formulated by the FBI to guide and enable them investigate federal crimes and threats towards achieving national security. They also play a great role in assisting the law enforcement agencies to formulate laws. Under Unit 28, Section 533 of the US code we realize that authority to investigate federal crime lies with FBI only. The organization bears the responsibility and authority of ensuring that national security prevails. Through formulation of this organization, US have set an example that other countries should emulate to combat organized crime.
Effectiveness of organized crime prosecution
Organized crime is a presentation of the major leading contemporary challenges facing both federal and state-enforcement bodies and officials. There are various factors that make effective prosecution a hard nut to crack and include technical skills and efficient organization of criminal syndicates. Also the use business transactions that are complex in nature during normal operations leads to illegal ventures, unavailability of people who are witnesses and ready to testify also contribute towards combating organized crime a hard target.
Formulation of Anti-corruption legislation has greatly contributed to combating organized crime as it forms a symbiosis relationship with corruption. This legislation specializes in formulating punishment to various actions.
Staff selection method will also greatly contribute towards effectively combating it since a detailed investigation about various officials to occupy posts will be carried out (Woodiwiss, 2001). Criminal records should be properly scrutinized to ensure that deserving people get the appointment. People vying for specific posts should be ensured that they possess the necessary qualifications.
Implementation of criminal hotline should be implemented as this is an effective way of combating crime since detailed information about organized crime can be submitted anonymously whenever necessary. Various companies should implement an internal department of organized crime with special investigative skills, they should also be equipped with the most recent technology; moreover, they should have the authority to access all the databases of the company and should be linked directly to the administration to facilitate faster and direct reporting. This will dearly present an effective way of combating crime within all major companies. This rule can be easily enforced in all government owned companies.
Laws should be implemented to ensure severe punishment to all those people who involve themselves in organized crime (Woodiwiss, 2001). The government should play an effective role of ensuring that the laws are adhered to and that the victims are appropriately punished without mercy. Through this the crime will eventually come to an end.
Padhy. P, (2006). Organized crime, Gyan Books
Paoli. L, Fijnaut. C, (2004). Organized crime in Europe: concepts, patterns, and control policies in the European Union and beyond, Springer
Woodiwiss. M, (2001). Organized crime and American power: a history, University of Toronto press
Wright. A (2006). Organized crime, Willan Pub